Incoming Mains Water - Odd Pipe Work

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Hi

I have lived in my home for well over ten years now and it has always frustrated me as to what this pipe work under the stairs was all about due to the fact it looks to be a right mess. I am wondering if anyone can shed an light onto what the various components might be doing.

I know the red arrow if the mains feed to the house with the internal stop cock just above. The pipe marked with the green arrow is the cold feed to the downstairs toilet and basin. I assume the two feeds going back downwards under the floor go off to feed the kitchen and upstairs bathroom. What is the item at the top marked with a blue arrow; seems like it might be some of air valve? Also why are there two drain offs; is this normal on mains pipes?

Sorry for the weird question; I am keen to understand.

Thanks
Graham
 

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I thi k there used to be a water softener connected to the two top pipes
 

CBW

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The pipe marked with blue arrow is a double check valve, which is a backflow prevention device - used in some setups like: heating filling loop, garden tap, et al. Drain offs are recommended and good practice where you only need drain down a particular leg of pipe, for example a garden tap for the winter. Another drain off is required above the incoming main. You appear to have at least one dead leg - the tee with just a coupling on the end.
 

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