What is a "Smart TV".

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However, what do you mean by "Moel-y-sant does not support commercial programs"?
What is "Moel-y-sant"?
Due to geographical restrictions etc. some areas of the UK are served by small local and relay transmitters.
Named 'Freeview Light', these transmitters broadcast a very limited range of 'Public Service Broadcasting' channels i.e. non-commercial (so exclude practically all of the regular Freeview channels!).
'Moel-y-sant' is the name of one of these 'Freeview Light' transmitters.

 
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Due to geographical restrictions etc. some areas of the UK are served by small local and relay transmitters.
Named 'Freeview Light', these transmitters broadcast a very limited range of 'Public Service Broadcasting' channels i.e. non-commercial (so exclude practically all of the regular Freeview channels!).
'Moel-y-sant' is the name of one of these 'Freeview Light' transmitters.

Really !
Why are the re-transmissions so limited?

Here in Australia there are many "small" areas "out of range" of a "decent" signal from what maybe a nearby group of transmitters - of the three Commercial networks, plus the ABC and SBS.
One of these re-transmitters is at Kings Cross (Sydney) - and another, at North Head (Sydney), which serves Manly.Beach !
However, all of these re-transmissions (and "translations" to different frequencies) cover all of the Channels available in the nearby "Major" area.
Details of the Re-Transmissions mentioned can be seen at
and

I am not aware of the "funding" for these re-transmission sites but it is probable that they are paid for by "contributions" from the "commercial channels" concerned - and the ABC and SBS, which means "The Government".

While the UK went to all UHF transmission, Australia still retains some VHF transmissions (to obtain a somewhat larger coverage), mainly from transmitters in the State Capital cities plus a few other places at a "distance" from the State Capital cities, such as Albury.
The rest of the country mainly uses UHF transmissions, as do the re-transmission sites.

The term "Freeview" it somewhat of an anathema in this country, since most "recording devices" using this "Brand" have built into them ways of preventing the "skipping over" the viewing of "commercials".

Incidentally, here there are also re-transmitters which repeat/transmit the AM/FM signals from the "off air" broadcast programs into the road tunnels (at the same frequency - while underground), so that drivers into these tunnels do not have any program to which they may be listening "interrupted".
The re-transmission of these "broadcast signals" may, at times, be interrupted by "service announcements" relating to conditions in the tunnel or beyond.

These are just "normal services" in Australia..
 
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Really !
Why are the re-transmissions so limited?

It's a matter of geography. The UK is quite compact, not a great distance between areas, so it is difficult to find enough radio spectrum for full fat transmitters, without one transmission interfering with another. Retransmissions normally need to occupy different frequencies to main transmissions, plus different polarisation. H for mains, V for small locals.
 
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It's a matter of geography. The UK is quite compact, not a great distance between areas, so it is difficult to find enough radio spectrum for full fat transmitters, without one transmission interfering with another. Retransmissions normally need to occupy different frequencies to main transmissions, plus different polarisation. H for mains, V for small locals.
I strongly doubt your apologising for "lack of spectrum"
Especially with Digital TV, many Channels can be fitted within a small range of UHF frequencies.

If you "look it up" on a site such as https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television_channel_frequencies
you will see that
the UK has 49 UHF available "Channels"- from 21 (471.25 MHz) to 69 (855.25 MHz) whereas
Australia has "only" 25 UHF available "Channels" from 28 (527.25 MHz) to 52 (695.25 MHz)
Vertical polarisation as opposed to Horizontal polarisation of the signal can work in all countries and UHF signals do not travel very far - over land surfaces.

It may surprise you to know that (where most people live) in Australia is relatively densely populated.

(For example, the State of Victoria is about the same area as is "England" so the "Necessity of TV coverage" is about the same - irrespective of the population size of only 6.5 million in Victoria.)
 
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I get very few channels through my local transmitter, lots missing.
 
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My comparison was an illustration of the "complete" TV coverage of a similar sized land area, with fewer available channels.

This may indicate that, in providing only limited coverage in certain small areas, the British population is being "conned"!

As I wrote earlier,
"The term "Freeview" it somewhat of an anathema in this country"
 
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I strongly doubt your apologising for "lack of spectrum"
Especially with Digital TV, many Channels can be fitted within a small range of UHF frequencies.

If you "look it up" on a site such as https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television_channel_frequencies
you will see that
the UK has 49 UHF available "Channels"- from 21 (471.25 MHz) to 69 (855.25 MHz) whereas
Australia has "only" 25 UHF available "Channels" from 28 (527.25 MHz) to 52 (695.25 MHz)
Vertical polarisation as opposed to Horizontal polarisation of the signal can work in all countries and UHF signals do not travel very far - over land surfaces.

It may surprise you to know that (where most people live) in Australia is relatively densely populated.

(For example, the State of Victoria is about the same area as is "England" so the "Necessity of TV coverage" is about the same - irrespective of the population size of only 6.5 million in Victoria.)
In the analogue days the UK had a 4 channel plan which mandated all four channels to be everywhere. Then late in the day a 5th channel was authorised which could only generally be added to the main transmitters. Many of the relays are in mountainous areas and there was not the spectrum available. Also coastal regions did not get 'five' due to possible continental interference.
Then digital came along with 6 muxes at all the main transmitters and also planned for the relays once analogue was switched off. But it was not mandated for all channels to be available everywhere. So the commercial companies decided it was not financially viable to pay for their services at the many hundreds of small relays.

Fast forward and the mobile companies lobbied for spectrum in the UHF TV band and governments including the UK sold them ch 61 to 69. Not satisfied with that they lobbied for more and were sold ch 50 to 59. That leaves us 21 to 49 or 29 available channels. Whether or not we could get 6 muxes everywhere is a moot point if the commercial companies are not prepared to pay for them.

A solution set up by the PSB companies was a satellite service called Freesat which provides most* of the terrestrial channels and more to anyone willing to install a small dish and satellite receiver.

* Most. What is not carried are the local TV services setup in some areas.

We also have rebroadcasting of radio channels on the same frequency in tunnels.
 
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In the analogue days the UK had a 4 channel plan which mandated all four channels to be everywhere. Then late in the day a 5th channel was authorised which could only generally be added to the main transmitters. Many of the relays are in mountainous areas and there was not the spectrum available. Also coastal regions did not get 'five' due to possible continental interference.
Then digital came along with 6 muxes at all the main transmitters and also planned for the relays once analogue was switched off. But it was not mandated for all channels to be available everywhere. So the commercial companies decided it was not financially viable to pay for their services at the many hundreds of small relays.

Fast forward and the mobile companies lobbied for spectrum in the UHF TV band and governments including the UK sold them ch 61 to 69. Not satisfied with that they lobbied for more and were sold ch 50 to 59. That leaves us 21 to 49 or 29 available channels. Whether or not we could get 6 muxes everywhere is a moot point if the commercial companies are not prepared to pay for them.

A solution set up by the PSB companies was a satellite service called Freesat which provides most* of the terrestrial channels and more to anyone willing to install a small dish and satellite receiver.

* Most. What is not carried are the local TV services setup in some areas.

We also have rebroadcasting of radio channels on the same frequency in tunnels.
Australia has 5 TV "Channels" or "service providers", 3 Commercial, the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) and SBS (Special Broadcasting Service - with many extra "ethnic" programs - apart from the main program.
(The latter two are Government "Funded" - at least, partly.)

There are also several (low powered) "special interest" TV Channels in some Capital Cities but these are to be "phased out" and shifted to the WWW.

There are "multiple programs" available on all of these 5 digital "Channels" and last night I counted 37 "programs" available in Melbourne - including 5 HD channels, which repeat 5 "SD" channels - or the other way around.
(Many of the "extra" programs on the "Commercial" channels are just continuous advertising.)

The ABC and SBS also have their "Radio" programs available via their Digital TV "services"

All these programs are available virtually everywhere that one can receive a "decent" TV signal of any kind in Australia.
The "Commercial" Channels change the "Adds" in the "local" areas where they re-transmit - just like the "networks" in the USA.
(Because these "advertising blocks" are in "Three Minute" or "30 second" periods, it is easy to record such programs and "skip" over the "commercials", if one has an appropriate PVR.")

(Obviously, there are VAST areas of Australia where one cannot receive any terrestrial TV (or Mobile 'Phone) signal - but that is another story.)

"Satellite TV" in Australia is (largely) provided only by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA,) which provides "Viewer Access Satellite Television" (VAST), if you live in an area with poor free-TV coverage.
(VAST seems to be a singularly appropriate name !)

VAST is funded by the Australian Government and gives people who may not be able to receive "regular’ TV services access to free-to-air TV or radio services by satellite.

Hence, wherever you live or travel in Australia, you will be able to receive virtually all of the TV programs which you could receive in the nearest Capital city.
Of course, there will be an extra cost for the equipment to receive "satellite reception" in the more remote areas.

Certain "media interests" have "programs" which are available, via subscription, on the WWW/NBN

Australia has the National Broadband Network (NBN) which was intended to provide "high speed" optic fibre connection to every household in Australia.
Certain governments "watered down" this objective and the NBN is now less than "high speed" in many places.
However, it is being up-graded, at an eventual cost of much more than it would have cost to install optic fibre cable (where practical) in the first place !!


Charging "Licence Fees" for a "Public Broadcasting Service" is (obviously) a "Poll Tax", since it is levied at the same rate on the "rich" and "poor" - except (possibly) "pensioners".

In Australia
"All licence fees were abolished in 1974 by the Australian Labor Party government led by Gough Whitlam on the basis that the near-universality of television and radio services meant that public funding was a fairer method of providing revenue for government-owned radio and television broadcasters.
The ABC has since then been funded by government grants, plus its own commercial activities (merchandising, overseas sale of programmes, etc.)
SBS is partly government funded but also uses "Commercial Sponsorship""

In New Zealand
"The public broadcasting fee was abolished in July 1999. NZ On Air was then funded by a direct appropriation from the Ministry for Culture and Heritage."

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television_licence)
 
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There are "multiple programs" available on all of these 5 digital "Channels" and last night I counted 37 "programs" available in Melbourne - including 5 HD channels, which repeat 5 "SD" channels - or the other way around.
(Many of the "extra" programs on the "Commercial" channels are just continuous advertising.)

Not including the data and text channels, the UK 'lite' service covered by the Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) muxes has something like 45 channels. These are split roughly 60:40 for TV versus radio, and it contains 9 HD channels. That's the service you referred to as the UK being 'conned' :whistle::D:D:D LOL

If I look at my local full-service transmitter, I can pick up something like 150 TV channels and the 19 radio channels. There are a few additional channels allocated to data and text services too. There's something like 80 full-service transmitters covering the majority of the UK population.

uk full transmitter map.jpg




These are supplemented by over 1000 relay transmitters providing at least a minimum of the 45 channel PSB service filling in a further 10% of the population coverage. About 2% of the UK population doesn't get a Freeview service.

All-in-all then I think we do quite well to cram this lot in to our tiny island nation without serious issues with channel clashes from adjacent transmitters including those on the continent.
 
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All-in-all then I think we do quite well to cram this lot in to our tiny island nation without serious issues with channel clashes from adjacent transmitters including those on the continent.

Exactly, lack of available spectrum.
 
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What is "Moel-y-sant"?
It's a transmitter site which is classified as 'freeview light', and only transmits the public service multiplexes which is mostly those provided by BBC, ITV, and C4.
The other commercial channels on the COM multiplexes are not available.

The PSB multiplexes are less than half of the available channels.
 
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If I look at my local full-service transmitter, I can pick up something like 150 TV channels and the 19 radio channels. There are a few additional channels allocated to data and text services too. There's something like 80 full-service transmitters covering the majority of the UK population.
There is however a con. A lot of those so called channels are part time. e.g. BBC4 and CBBC share one stream which changes its name, LCN, and programming every day at 1900 (I think that is the time). That is counted a two channels but to my mind it is one channel.

There are many other examples.
 
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I believe that the limit on these transmitters isn't necessarily available spectrum, but also cost. They carry only the services that Ofcom required to be made available to any location that previously received analogue service. Regarding spectrum some of these transmitters cover only a really small area, and are already distinguished from full service transmission by polarisation. I find it hard to believe none of them could find more than three available bands at their specific location.

We're on a Freeview "Light" service ourselves, but don't really feel we're missing anything much.
 

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